Anne-Lise Boyer, Claude Le Gouill, Franck Poupeau, Lala Razafimahefa, Participations 2017/3 (N° 19), p. 189-217
The study focuses on the public participation process that was implemented in the United States by the National Environmental Protection Act. It analyzes the stakeholders’ discourses, which were produced within institutional forums of participation in the case of the Rosemont mine proposal. Our results show that this kind of public participation reaches a socio-economically large and diverse public. However, the public is strongly controlled by interest groups, therefore the participation process can be defined in terms of “quantity” rather than “quality.” This article reveals that analyzing public participation helps to assess environmental controversies.
François-Michel Le Tourneau, GeoJournal 2017 Vol. 82 n° 4
More than half of the US rural population lives inside metro or micropolitan areas and even at more disaggregated scales, such as the census tracts, most spatial units mix rural and urban population. At a national scale, only 30% of the country are inhabited by 100% urban or 100% rural population, implying that more than two third of the US territory are somewhere in between both situations. As the rural/urban dichotomy appears today to be blurred by the emergence of new phenomena like rurbanization or exurbanization, our perception of rural America may be somewhat twisted and the reality of rural areas underplayed. This paper focuses on using finer-grade spatial units such as the census blocks and block groups, in order to provide new elements about the extension, localization and characteristics of rural America as well as about its inner dynamics. To that end, we analyze and process geographical and social data at these two levels of information, and use population density as a main factor of analysis. This allows us not only to propose new measurement of the extent of rural space in the USA but also to propose a new vision of its spatial dynamics by studying how several social indicators such as income, median age or sex ratio reveal regional and micro-regional variations and situations in the rural part of the US.
Claude Le Gouill, Critique Internationale 2017/4 (No 77)
The article draws upon the natural resources management model developed by economist Elinor Ostrom to examine the Constancia (Peru) mining project. It's a study of local communities’ capacity for decentralized and adaptive management within the new rhetoric of sustainable mining advanced by the companies. In what ways does this new mode of regulation allow local communities to provide for their self-organization? Do they have any influence in the very hierarchical power relations characteristic of the mining context? At issue is their ability to maintain sovereignty over their territories and manage the “Common-Pool Resources”. By taking into account the mediating role played by new professionals in the participatory process institutionalized by the state, the Peruvian legal framework offers a relevant example for analyzing the relationships of these communities with the mining companies.